In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands, including the town of Hafn, were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde 1158–1191 and Archbishop of Lund 1177–1201, by King Valdemar I.
On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.
Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century. Dating bochum Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs.The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.
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Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. Excavations in Pilestræde have also led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century.The remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.Originally controlled by the Catholic Church, the university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark in the late 1530s. In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to Christian II, who was Catholic, was successfully besieged in 1523 by the forces of Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism.Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall.
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After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536, during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III.
With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades and waterfronts.
Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, the Little Mermaid Statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour", often simply Hafn or Havn ("harbour").
The literal English translation would be "Chapman's haven".